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Título: Alterações fisiológicas induzidas por estresses abióticos em plantas jovens de pinhão-manso.
Título em inglês: Physiological changes induced by abiotic stresses in physic nut young plants
Autor(es): Silva, Evandro Nascimento da
Orientador(es): Silveira, Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da
Palavras-chave: Bioquimica
Jatropha curcas
Estresse hídrico
Estresse salino
Data do documento: 2009
Citação: SILVA, E. N.; SILVEIRA, J. A. G. (2009)
Abstract: In this work were studied diverse physiological mechanisms, as the osmotic adjustment, photosynthesis, including gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well the oxidative responses in physic nuts submitted to different abiotic stresses as: salinity, drought and high temperature. The first experiment aimed to study the effects of increase of the NaCl concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) in the ions accumulate (Na+, Cl- and K+) and some growth variables, as well evaluate the water state and the principals solutes (organic and inorganic) involved on the osmotic adjustment of physic nuts plants under this stressful condition. Physic nuts plants showed sensibility to salt stress, presenting a reduction by 50% in dry matter from by 47 mM of NaCl concentration during 15-d. This sensibility should be due the leaf Na+ and Cl- high accumulation, associated a strong reduction in the K+concentration, induced by high Na+ content. On the other hand, physic nuts plants were able osmotic adjust to salinity due a severe decrease on the osmotic potential and increase of leaf water state, principally in the higher NaCl levels. Of the solutes studied, was observed that salt ions (Na+ and Cl-) contributed with the most of the osmotic adjustment, while that the K+contribution was decreased strongly by NaCl. The glycinebetaine compared to proline was more important to the osmotic adjustment of physic nuts leaves, as in the absence as in presence of different NaCl levels in the nutrient solution. The second experiment evaluated the resistance of photosynthetic apparatus of physic nuts plants submitted to different time of exposure (7-d and 14-d of treatment and 3-d of recovery) to salt stress (100 mM of NaCl).The changes caused on photochemistry activity and leaf gas exchange were evaluate by Na+ and Cl- accumulation and decrease of K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. After 7-d of treatment was observed a major action of osmotic effects. However, after 14-d of treatment, the ionic effects caused by Na+ and Cl- excessive accumulation and by K+/Na+ ratio strong reduction in the leaves, caused permanent damages on the photosynthesis of physic nuts plants due as the stomatal limitations as non-stomatal ones. The third experiment aimed to study the comparative effects between the salt stress (50 mM of NaCl) and water stress (induced for xv PEG 6000), both with osmotic potential of –0.22 MPa on the photosynthesis, water relations and growth of physic nuts plants. T e water stress effects induced for PEG in the leaf growth, electrolyte leakage and leaf gas exchange were more deleterious than by NaCl ones. In the both stresses was observed decrease in the leaf CO2 assimilation due the stomatal and nonstomatal limitations. However, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters did not affect. The fourth experiment aimed to evaluate the relative contribution of organic and inorganic solutes on the osmotic adjustment of leaves and roots physic nuts plants in different water restriction levels. Of the solutes studied, the K+ and soluble sugar were the most involved in the osmotic adjustment as in the leaves as in roots. Others solutes as, Na+, Cl-, total amino acids and glycibetaine, also presented a effective role in the reduction of osmotic potential in both organs. On the other hand, the leaf proline content, although has increased significantly, was not sufficient to promote an effective participation of this amino acid in the osmotic adjustment of physic nuts plants. The same experiment aimed to observe the isolated and combined effects of water stress and high temperature on the photosynthesis and evaluate the oxidative defenses system in physic nuts plants. The photosynthetic apparatus was more sensitive to water stress than heat ones, been that the combination of them caused deleterious effects yet large in this complex. Additionally, the oxidative damages also were more marked in the combined stress. In general, the data shown that physic nuts plants, although present ability to adjust osmotically to salinity and drought, have their photosynthetic apparatus very affected in this stressful conditions. Even as, the defense system against oxidative damages appears has not been efficient in plants exposure at the drought and heat isolated and combined stresses.
Descrição: SILVA, E. N. Alterações fisiológicas induzidas por estresses abióticos em plantas jovens de pinhão-manso. 2009. 129 f. Tese (Doutorado em Bioquímica) - Centro de Ciências, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, 2009.
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